Medically reviewed & written by Dr. Neha Sawant (PT) — Research Associate Masters in Neurophysiotherapy

Medically reviewed & written by Dr. Jude Dsouza (PT) — Research Associate Masters in Neurophysiotherapy




Bunions also called as Hallux Valgus, are one of the most common forefoot problems. A bunion is a painful and  prominent bump on the inner side of the foot ,at the joint of the great toe. This bump is a bone bulging towards the inner side of the foot. Bunions results in inflammation, swelling, and soreness on the big toe. This discomfort commonly forces an individual to walk improperly.
Tailor’s Bunion is a type of bunion which forms on the outside of the foot towards the joint at the 5th toe. It is a smaller bump that results form 5th toe moving inwards, towards the big toe.



Bunions are more common in women. It can develop from an abnormal foot function, or arthritis, but is more commonly caused by wearing improper tight fitting footwear. Tight shoes with a narrow toe box can cause the foot to take the shape of the shoe, leading to the formation of a bunion. The toes are squeezed together in the shoes causing the first toe to bulge on the side of the foot.  The most common cause is an arch related abnormality, such as flat feet, that leads to disturbed joint function.  This deformity can also be inherited.  Other less common causes include Rheumatoid arthritis and trauma.


Treatment And Prevention



Conservative treatment to reduce the pain caused by bunions is to wear shoes that accommodate to the deformity.  Shoes with a wide toe box are recommended. Bunion shield pads can be used to cushion the area over the bunion. Orthotics like custom made shoe inserts,splints and toe spacers can limit the progression of the bunion formation. Surgery may be last option to correct the deformity after consulting your health care practioner.


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